Cattle on Feed
Cattle on Feed

ISSN: 1948-9080

Released May 24, 2019, by the National Agricultural Statistics Service 
(NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, United States Department of 
Agriculture (USDA).

United States Cattle on Feed Up 2 Percent
	
Cattle and calves on feed for the slaughter market in the United States for 
feedlots with capacity of 1,000 or more head totaled 11.8 million head on May 
1, 2019. The inventory was 2 percent above May 1, 2018. This is the highest 
May 1 inventory since the series began in 1996.

Placements in feedlots during April totaled 1.84 million head, 9 percent 
above 2018. Net placements were 1.78 million head. During April, placements 
of cattle and calves weighing less than 600 pounds were 355,000 head, 
600-699 pounds were 250,000 head, 700-799 pounds were 447,000 head, 
800-899 pounds were 495,000 head, 900-999 pounds were 210,000 head, 
and 1,000 pounds and greater were 85,000 head.

Marketings of fed cattle during April totaled 1.93 million head, 7 percent 
above 2018.  

Other disappearance totaled 60,000 head during April, 5 percent below 2018.

Cattle on Feed Inventory, Placements, Marketings, and Other Disappearance on
1,000+ Capacity Feedlots - United States: May 1, 2018 and 2019
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        :          Number           :  Percent of  
                  Item                  :---------------------------:              
                                        :    2018     :    2019     :previous year 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        :   ---- 1,000 head ----        percent    
                                        :                                          
On feed April 1 ........................:   11,729        11,964          102      
Placed on feed during April ............:    1,695         1,842          109      
Fed cattle marketed during April .......:    1,803         1,928          107      
Other disappearance during April .......:       63            60           95      
On feed May 1 ..........................:   11,558        11,818          102      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cattle on Feed Inventory, Placements, Marketings, and Other Disappearance on
1,000+ Capacity Feedlots - United States: April 1, 2018 and 2019
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        :          Number           :  Percent of  
                  Item                  :---------------------------:              
                                        :    2018     :    2019     :previous year 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        :   ---- 1,000 head ----        percent    
                                        :                                          
On feed March 1 ........................:   11,715        11,796          101      
Placed on feed during March ............:    1,921         2,014          105      
Fed cattle marketed during March .......:    1,840         1,777           97      
Other disappearance during March .......:       67            69          103      
On feed April 1 ........................:   11,729        11,964          102      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cattle on Feed Inventory on 1,000+ Capacity Feedlots by Month - States and United States:
2018 and 2019
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  :                 :                 :                May 1, 2019                 
                  :                 :                 :--------------------------------------------
       State      :   May 1, 2018   :  April 1, 2019  :              :  Percent of  :  Percent of  
                  :                 :                 :    Number    :previous year :previous month
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  :     --------------- 1,000 head --------------          ----- percent ----      
                  :                                                                                
Arizona ..........:        298               314              313          105            100      
California .......:        500               535              530          106             99      
Colorado .........:        940             1,060            1,060          113            100      
Idaho ............:        255               285              285          112            100      
Iowa .............:        730               710              680           93             96      
Kansas ...........:      2,290             2,380            2,380          104            100      
Minnesota ........:        155               150              140           90             93      
Nebraska .........:      2,660             2,580            2,560           96             99      
Oklahoma .........:        310               315              305           98             97      
South Dakota .....:        255               250              245           96             98      
Texas ............:      2,630             2,850            2,790          106             98      
Washington .......:        210               225              235          112            104      
                  :                                                                                
Other States .....:        325               310              295           91             95      
                  :                                                                                
United States ....:     11,558            11,964           11,818          102             99      
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cattle Placed on Feed on 1,000+ Capacity Feedlots by Month - States and United States:
2018 and 2019
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  :              :              :             During April 2019              
                  :    During    :    During    :--------------------------------------------
       State      :  April 2018  :  March 2019  :              :  Percent of  :  Percent of  
                  :              :              :    Number    :previous year :previous month
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  :    ------------ 1,000 head -----------           ----- percent ----      
                  :                                                                          
Arizona ..........:       26             31             25            96             81      
California .......:       59             71             63           107             89      
Colorado .........:      145            200            170           117             85      
Idaho ............:       28             44             31           111             70      
Iowa .............:       80            104             85           106             82      
Kansas ...........:      380            470            435           114             93      
Minnesota ........:       12             17             11            92             65      
Nebraska .........:      420            425            435           104            102      
Oklahoma .........:       60             60             58            97             97      
South Dakota .....:       25             29             27           108             93      
Texas ............:      385            480            415           108             86      
Washington .......:       27             34             40           148            118      
                  :                                                                          
Other States .....:       48             49             47            98             96      
                  :                                                                          
United States ....:    1,695          2,014          1,842           109             91      
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cattle Placed on Feed by Weight Group on 1,000+ Capacity Feedlots and Month - States and United States: 2018 and 2019
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               :                                                   During April 2018                                                   
               :-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     State     :Under 600 lbs : 600-699 lbs  : 700-799 lbs  : 800-899 lbs  :  900+ lbs1/  : 900-999 lbs  :  1,000+ lbs  :    Total     
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               :  1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head  
               :                                                                                                                       
Colorado ......:      25             20             35             40             25            (D)            (D)             145     
Kansas ........:      40             55            105            110             70            (D)            (D)             380     
Nebraska ......:      40             45             95            125            115            (D)            (D)             420     
Texas .........:     115             70            100             75             25            (D)            (D)             385     
               :                                                                                                                       
Other States ..:     100             40             80             95             50            (D)            (D)             365     
               :                                                                                                                       
United States .:     320            230            415            445            (X)            205             80           1,695     

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               :                                                   During March 2019                                                   
               :-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     State     :Under 600 lbs : 600-699 lbs  : 700-799 lbs  : 800-899 lbs  : 900+ lbs 1/  : 900-999 lbs  :  1,000+ lbs  :    Total     
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               :  1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head  
               :                                                                                                                       
Colorado ......:      30             35             55             55             25            (D)            (D)             200     
Kansas ........:      45             55            170            140             60            (D)            (D)             470     
Nebraska ......:      25             55            115            130            100            (D)            (D)             425     
Texas .........:     115            100            140            100             25            (D)            (D)             480     
               :                                                                                                                       
Other States ..:     110             55            115            114             45            (D)            (D)             439     
               :                                                                                                                       
United States .:     325            300            595            539            (X)            185             70           2,014     

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               :                                                   During April 2019                                                   
               :-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     State     :Under 600 lbs : 600-699 lbs  : 700-799 lbs  : 800-899 lbs  : 900+ lbs 1/  : 900-999 lbs  :  1,000+ lbs  :    Total     
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               :  1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head     1,000 head  
               :                                                                                                                       
Colorado ......:      30             30             40             45             25            (D)            (D)             170     
Kansas ........:      45             60            125            130             75            (D)            (D)             435     
Nebraska ......:      40             50             95            130            120            (D)            (D)             435     
Texas .........:     125             70            105             90             25            (D)            (D)             415     
               :                                                                                                                       
Other States ..:     115             40             82            100             50            (D)            (D)             387     
               :                                                                                                                       
United States .:     355            250            447            495            (X)            210             85           1,842     
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(D) Withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual operations.                                                                       
(X) Not applicable.                                                                                                                    
1/  The 900 pounds and greater weight group is the sum of 900-999 pounds and 1,000 pounds and greater weight groups.                   

Cattle Marketed on 1,000+ Capacity Feedlots by Month - States and United States:
2018 and 2019
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  :              :              :             During April 2019              
                  :    During    :    During    :--------------------------------------------
       State      :  April 2018  :  March 2019  :              :  Percent of  :  Percent of  
                  :              :              :    Number    :previous year :previous month
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  :    ------------ 1,000 head -----------           ----- percent ----      
                  :                                                                          
Arizona ..........:       21             27             25           119             93      
California .......:       56             57             65           116            114      
Colorado .........:      150            185            165           110             89      
Idaho ............:       21             32             30           143             94      
Iowa .............:       87            100            113           130            113      
Kansas ...........:      420            375            420           100            112      
Minnesota ........:       16             16             20           125            125      
Nebraska .........:      430            425            440           102            104      
Oklahoma .........:       59             53             67           114            126      
South Dakota .....:       27             37             30           111             81      
Texas ............:      445            390            465           104            119      
Washington .......:       26             33             28           108             85      
                  :                                                                          
Other States .....:       45             47             60           133            128      
                  :                                                                          
United States ....:    1,803          1,777          1,928           107            108      
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cattle Other Disappearance on 1,000+ Capacity Feedlots by Month - States and United States:
2018 and 2019
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  :              :              :             During April 2019              
                  :    During    :    During    :--------------------------------------------
       State      :  April 2018  :  March 2019  :              :  Percent of  :  Percent of  
                  :              :              :    Number    :previous year :previous month
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  :      ---------- 1,000 head ----------            ----- percent ----      
                  :                                                                          
Arizona ..........:       1              1              1            100            100      
California .......:       3              4              3            100             75      
Colorado .........:       5              5              5            100            100      
Idaho ............:       2              2              1             50             50      
Iowa .............:       3              4              2             67             50      
Kansas ...........:      10             15             15            150            100      
Minnesota ........:       1              1              1            100            100      
Nebraska .........:      20             20             15             75             75      
Oklahoma .........:       1              2              1            100             50      
South Dakota .....:       3              2              2             67            100      
Texas ............:      10             10             10            100            100      
Washington .......:       1              1              2            200            200      
                  :                                                                          
Other States .....:       3              2              2             67            100      
                  :                                                                          
United States ....:      63             69             60             95             87      
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Terms and Definitions of Cattle on Feed Estimates

Cattle on feed are steers and heifers being fed a ration of grain, silage, 
hay and/or protein supplement for slaughter market that are expected to 
produce a carcass that will grade select or better. It excludes cattle being 
"backgrounded only" for later sale as feeders or later placement in another 
feedlot.

Placements are steers and heifers put into a feedlot, fed a ration which will 
produce a carcass that will grade select or better, and are intended for the 
slaughter market.

Marketings are steers and heifers shipped out of feedlots to a slaughter 
market.

Other disappearance includes death loss, movement from feedlots to pasture, 
and shipments to other feedlots for further feeding.

Statistical Methodology

Survey Procedures: During January and July all known feedlots in the United 
States with capacity of 1,000 or more head are surveyed to provide data for 
cattle on feed estimates. During the other months, all known feedlots from 16 
States are surveyed. The 16 States account for approximately 98 percent of 
the cattle on feed in feedlots with capacity of 1,000 or more head. 
Individual State estimates are published monthly for 12 of the 16 States. 
Data collected from the remaining 4 States are used to establish the "Other 
States" estimates. These 4 States include Illinois, New Mexico, Oregon, and 
Wyoming. The "Other States" category represents all cattle on feed with a 
capacity of 1,000 or more head for the rest of the United States.

Estimating Procedures: These cattle on feed estimates were prepared by the 
Agricultural Statistics Board after reviewing recommendations and analysis 
submitted by Regional Field Offices. Regional and State survey data were 
reviewed for reasonableness with each other and with estimates from the 
previous month when establishing the current estimates.

Revision Policy: Revisions to previous estimates are made to improve month to 
month relationships. Estimates for the previous month are subject to revision 
in all States each month when current estimates are made. In February, all 
monthly estimates for the previous year, and the number of feedlots and 
annual marketings from two years ago are reviewed and subject to revisions. 
The reviews are primarily based on slaughter data, state check-off or brand 
data, and any other data that may have been received after the original 
estimate was made. Estimates will also be reviewed after data from the Census 
of Agriculture are available. No revisions will be made after that date and 
estimates become final.

Reliability: Since all 1,000+ capacity cattle on feed operators in every 
State are not included in the monthly survey, survey estimates are subject to 
sampling variability. Survey results are also subject to non-sampling errors 
such as omissions, duplications, and mistakes in reporting, recording, and 
processing the data. The effects of these errors cannot be measured directly. 
They are minimized through rigid quality controls in the data collection 
process and through a careful review of all reported data for consistency and 
reasonableness.
 
To assist users in evaluating the reliability of estimates in this report, 
the "Root Mean Square Error" is shown for selected items in the table on the 
following page. The "Root Mean Square Error" is a statistical measure based 
on past performance and is computed using the differences between first and 
latest estimates. The "Root Mean Square Error" for cattle on feed inventory 
estimates over the past 24 months is 0.0 percent. This means that chances are 
2 out of 3 that the final estimate will not be above or below the current 
estimate of 11.8 million head by more than 0.0 percent. Chances are 9 out of 
10 that the difference will not exceed 0.0 percent.

The table on the following page shows a 24 month record of the range of 
differences between first and latest estimates for selected items. Using 
estimates of number on feed as an example, changes between the first estimate 
and the latest estimate during the past 24 months have averaged 1,000 head, 
ranging from 0 to 10,000 head. During this period the initial estimate has 
been above the latest estimate 0 times and has been below the latest estimate 
2 times. This does not imply that the initial estimate is likely to 
understate or overstate final inventory. 

Reliability of Monthly Cattle on Feed Estimates
[Based on data for the past 24 months]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              :  Root mean   :  90 percent  :        Difference between first and latest estimate         
                              : square error :  confidence  :         :         :         :               :               
                              :              :    level     :-------------------------------------------------------------
             Item             :              :              :         :         :         :            Months             
                              :              :              :         :         :         :-------------------------------
                              :              :              : Average :Smallest : Largest : Below latest  : Above latest  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              :   percent        percent         ------- 1,000 -------            ----- number ----       
                              :                                                                                           
Number on feed ...............:     0.0            0.0           1         0        10            2               0       
                              :                                                                                           
Placements ...................:     0.1            0.2           1         0        10            2               0       
                              :                                                                                           
Marketings ...................:     0.0            0.0           0         0         0            0               0       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Information Contacts

Listed below are the commodity specialists in the Livestock 
Branch of the National Agricultural Statistics Service to contact 
for additional information. E-mail inquiries may be sent to 
nass@nass.usda.gov.

Travis Averill, Chief, Livestock Branch ......... (202) 720-3570

Scott Hollis, Head, Livestock Section ...........  (202) 690-2424
   Sherry Bertramsen - Livestock Slaughter ...... (202) 690-8632
   Holly Brenize - Sheep and Goats .............. (202) 720-0585
   Donnie Fike - Dairy Products ................. (202) 720-4448
   Heidi Gleich - Cattle, Cattle on Feed ........ (202) 720-3040
   Mike Miller - Milk Production and Milk Cows .. (202) 720-3278
   Seth Riggins - Hogs and Pigs ................. (202) 720-3106

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